Because this sample includes comparable numbers of men and women of diverse ages, we also examined the effects of demographics and calendar month season on stone composition. However, age and sex have a marked influence on the type of stone formed. Thus, the overall sex ratio for Indian population is 933. Even in the field of social welfare, the planning of social services for instance, for mothers and children, for the aged, etc. Age statistics form an important component of population analysis, as most of the analysis is based on age-sex structure of the population.
This study has potential weaknesses. Older women, likely to be postmenopausal i. The reasons for this trend are not entirely clear. Thus, the seasonal trends in these two stone types did not seem to vary significantly by area of the country. Pyramid shape — Narrower base with equally wide subsequent age groups tapering off gradually.
This results in higher female mortality. The dependency ratio, which is the ratio of economically active to economically inactive persons, is dependent on age composition. The data collected by the Registrar General, India regarding six million live births that took place during 1981-91 in hospitals, health centres and institutions located mostly in urban areas in various parts of the country, gave the sex ratio at birth at 891. Nevertheless, the very large number of stones available for this study allowed us to detect clear trends in the case mix of stone composition, which suggest important age, sex, and seasonal effects. High fertility due to social, cultural and perhaps religious and economic condition. Since the longevity and life expectancy in these countries is short, the proportion of population in the old age group is also not very large. It is a useful tool for social scientists, public health and health care experts, policy analysts, and policy-makers because it illustrates population trends like rates of births and deaths.
Such countries may once have had progressive structures and may, in future, have regressive structures. In general, the sex differences in stone composition were much less prominent over age 70 years and most marked under age 30 years. This proportion is large if the country is passing through the first or the second stage of demographic transition. Initially, each stone was weighed before a representative specimen approximately 1 mg was taken from all identifiable layers. Harris, The Theory of Branching Processes New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Samples containing only protein were classified as such 0. When the youths out migrate, the population of older adults and aged people starts declining after some time.
It supports the bulk of other age groups; it carries the burden of feeding, clothing, educating the young age group and of looking after the old age group. Generally the population is categorised into three broad age groups: the young usually under 14 , adults usually 15 to 59 inclusive and the aged 60 and over. Also note the lump in the pyramid between the ages of about 50-59, this large segment of the population is the post-. Body fat distribution and the risk of incident metabolic syndrome: A longitudinal cohort study. The has several types of age-related data that they report. This means that while birth rates have increased a bit over time, more recently they have declined. Rapid growth is indicated by a pyramid with a large percentage of people in the younger ages.
Surprisingly enough, the attitude of society towards children, the youth and elderly people is affected by the sex-age distribution of the population. Thus, there are wide regional variations in the proportion of young population ranging from less than 18 per cent in Europe to nearly 43 per cent in Africa and about 36 per cent in Asia and Latin America. However, they all tend to fall into three general profiles of age-sex composition: 1. The data on sex are also easily obtained. Changes in fertility generally produce the biggest changes in a society's age structure, regardless of the level of mortality. Age-sex structures and population pyramids Describing populations Population stock refers to the composition of a population at a given point in time. Such a skewed ratio of male-female at the time of birth is largely due to female foeticide.
Alternatively, other stone compositions did not vary with calendar month. For extremely muscular people, such as athletes and bodybuilders, height and weight measurements alone may not accurately indicate health, because muscle weighs more than fat. The resulting spectrum was compared against a reference spectrum of all known kidney stone components, allowing for accurate analysis of complex crystal mixtures of each crystal type. In the western countries, there is an influx of females from rural areas to avail of the vast employment opportunities in urban areas. Ratios above 1,000 indicate excess of females over males; those below 1,000 indicate a deficit of females. Thus, a population that has experienced a recent decline in fertility tends to have relatively small numbers both of children and of aged persons and a large proportion of adults in the middle ages. For example, studies have indicated that people who have fat around the waist and surrounding the abdominal organs may be more at risk of health problems than those with fat in other areas.
Moreover, the proportion of population in the older age groups in developed countries is relatively large. When the sex ratio is defined as the number of males per 100 females, the sex ratio above 100 indicates a high sex ratio, while that below 100 is considered to be a low sex ratio. Overall, this study highlights that the factors that drive stone formation in younger women likely differ the factors that drive stone formation in the older and more common stone formers men. Results Stones were received from across the United States, including the northeast 6351; 14. A stationary age structure of population is one in which birth and death rate unchanged over a long period of time. An attempt is made to forecast future trends concerning age and sex distribution. In oriental societies the elders continue to be looked up to as storehouses of experience and wisdom, and therefore as advisers and consultants.
The percentage of rural population is higher in farm-based agricultural countries, while industrially, developed regions have higher share of urban population. Finally, our data suggest that the environment has effects on certain stone types, but perhaps not others. Possibly, this observation has to do with changes in kidney function associated with aging. Se ilustra la aplicación de estas fórmulas utilizando los datos disponsibles sobre las condiciones de fecunidad y mortalidad en Estados Unidos en 1964. However, age and sex both influence the distribution of stone type in important ways. The sex ratio of a population may either be expressed as the number of males per 100 females or as the number of females per 100 males. No clinical data are available for these individuals other than age, sex, and the referral site submitting the stone.
Results suggest that the aggregate percentages are similar to those previously reported. A slight improvement of 4 points in 1981 could not be maintained and there was a fall of 7 points from 934 in 1981 to 927 in 1991. Hence a decline or increase in fertility has a significant effect at one end of the age distribution and can thereby influence the overall age structure. In fact, Japan has experienced a over the past four years. Youthful populations are represented by pyramids with a broad base and a narrow apex of older people: The principal factor contributing to a change in the age distribution of a population is the rate of fertility: a change in fertility affects the number of people in the single age group of age zero, or the newly born.