In both systems you need checks and balances to ensure that the executive is not too powerful. The most striking fact is that in a presidential system, the legislators, particularly when they represent well organized, disciplined parties that constitute real ideological and political choices for the voters, also enjoy a democratic legitimacy. The most conspicuous difference between the two choices lies in the concept of separation of powers that characterizes the American system. However, there is a related problem. What are the respective strengths and weaknesses of the two systems? It is difficult to conceive the issue being resolved among the political leaders without bringing thc people into the debate and without using the threat of non-democratic institutions like the courts and more frequently a political intervention by the armed forces. A president is not, like a prime minister, normally a member of a parliament who, although sitting on the government benches, is still a member of a larger body where he is forced to interact to some extent as an equal with other politicians and the leaders of the other parties, particularly if he depends on their support as head of a coalition government or as a minority government. Unless the prime minister has an absolute majority, the system inevitably includes some of the elements that become institutionalized in what has been called consociational democracy.
Not all democracies are the same, but its survival depends on its institutional system. The strength of this system is that it supposedly delivers effective but responsible government. Presidential constitutions paradoxically incorporate two opposite principles and assumptions. Choosing a council of ministers who were collectively responsible to the parliament with a nominal head at the top was a better idea. Thus, the president is primarily accountable to the people. Powers Concentrated Divided Ministers Only the members of Parliament can be appointed as minster. The presidential office is by nature two-dimensional and, in a sense, ambiguous.
In such a case, those who supported the former president might feel the successor does not represent their choice and does not have the popular democratic legitimation required for the office. Because voting the party line is so important to the survival of the government, failure to follow the whip can lead to virtual expulsion from the party. The normal nature of Parliamentary elections results in a diverse set of Political Parties - typically numbering at least 5. The party elects a member, as a leader, who is appointed as the Prime Minister by the President. In early days every word spoken by the King or Queen was the law and no one had power to contradict it. This generates the pressure groups, which always blackmail the ruling party as well as opposition party.
Persons outside the legislature are appointed as ministers. A presidential system separates the executive and legislative functions of the government and provides what are commonly called checks and balances to limit the power of both the chief executive and the legislature. Both forms of democracy are , worldwide. If all people have good and desired attitudes, if we think of the others before as or if we love our brothers as much as we love our selves, each one will have the same result as long as we all think for the good of the society. Compromises and deals will have to be made in public and presumably will be binding for four years at least, while those made in the day-to-day process of governing in a parliamentary system might be less public and always potentially reversible without implying a betrayal of the voters. Inevitably the center right and right would have focused their attack on the dangerous supporters of the left democratic candidate, the role of the communists and the peripheral nationalists among his supporters and the compromises he would have made with them. For example, a country might have a prime minister who acts as its head of government and a monarch who acts as its head of state.
However, within those terms, both the Legislative and Executive branches have more freedom of action for both good and ill , since they know what their minimum time in office will be. There are fewer choices in terms of party, but each party tends to represent a larger swath of the populace. Parliament This system is prevalent in the countries like United Kingdom, India, Japan and Canada. A bicameral parliament is usually composed of an elected lower house, which has the authority to determine the executive branch. These differences include separation of powers, the systems having different heads of state, and different election processes. Isolation of the Executive branch from direct popular opinion makes is possible for the Executive to implement very unpopular policies that cannot be challenged for quite some time. Legislative Efficiency Another difference between these systems of government is the effects that each system has on things such as efficiency and political acrimony.
The uncertainties of a period of regime transition and consolidation no doubt make the rigidities of a presidential constitution more problematic than the possibility of flexible responses to a changing situation in parliamentary systems. Thus, small opinions go unheard or ignored. The central feature of these systems is a fusion of legislative and executive power, that government is parliamentary in that it is drawn from the assembly or parliament. The Executive is fully self-contained. This is not complete list but you get the idea. Constitution, from 'Lives of the Signers to the Declaration of Independence' 1829 by the Rev.
Presidential system, though with the same provision for legislature i. In a Presidential System, the President fulfills both roles Head of State and Head of Government. Heywood 2007 One of the key features of any political system is the relationship between the assembly and the government: that is, the relationship between the legislative and executive authority. As governments are almost always the result of coalitions of parties, they tend to be diverse and represent a wide swath of popular opinion. In the Presidential system, executive has a fixed tenure normally, the executive head President stays in power for the whole term. This means that the incumbent will be much more aware of the demands of different groups, much more concerned about retaining their support and correspondingly different parties do not lose expectations of exercising a share in power, an ability to control and the opportunity to gain benefits for their supporters. In case of the Centre, for instance, Prime Minister has to select her or his entire team from a small pool of 446 Members of Parliament, who, in turn are elected in most cases due to their popularity or on account of their loyalty to the party or on sectarianism or casteism or Nawabism.
He is not only the holder of executive power but the symbolic head of state and cannot be dismissed except in the exceptional cases of impeachment between elections. The second institutional characteristic of presidential systems is the fact that presidents are elected for a period of time which under normal circumstances cannot be modified, ,or shortened; and sometimes, due to provisions preventing reelection, cannot be prolonged. Conversely, in the Presidential form of Government, there is no such accountability, i. In the Presidential government, i same person is head of state as well as head of government. To the people of United States, presidential system serves them better.
At the same time, however, they provided for a system in which some powers should be shared: Congress may pass laws, but the president can veto them; the president nominates certain public officials, but Congress must approve the appointments; and laws passed by Congress as well as executive actions are subject to judicial review. Within that fixed term, the Executive does not have to worry about popular opinion or, at least, they cannot lose their job if their popularity sinks below 50%. That is a bipolar choice which under certain conditions is likely to produce considerable polarization. . A president's duties as head of state include tasks such as making speeches, representing the country at public events, hosting or visiting diplomats from other countries, and presenting prestigious national awards. This leads to relatively frequent elections, which means the people are being frequently asked their opinion of those in power.