Whereas an adolescent with a sense of role confusion, is uncertain as to what they will be or do when they are older. Too much or too little gratification can result in an Oral Fixation or Oral Personality which is evidenced by a preoccupation with oral activities. The child's relative understanding of world and society comes from the parents and their interaction with the child. Trust vs mistrust Is the world a safe place or is it full of unpredictable events and accidents waiting to happen? This will lead them being confident adults because their childhood was cherished with their enlightened abilities which aggravated their self-esteems. The child will often overstep the mark in his forcefulness, and the danger is that the parents will tend to punish the child and restrict his initiatives too much. Erikson believed that successful development was all about striking a balance between the two opposing sides.
The theory does not have a universal mechanism for crisis resolution. If these stages are well-managed then the individual will gain psychosocial strength which will help them to successfully go through the rest of the stages in life. Increased muscular, mental and language abilities set the stage for more activities and questions. According to Erikson, this is important to the process of forming a strong identity and developing a sense of direction in life. Failure to successfully complete a stage can result in a reduced ability to complete further stages and therefore a more unhealthy personality and sense of self. According to psychosocial theory, we experience eight stages of development over our lifespan, from infancy through late adulthood. Guilt Locomotor-genital, Preschool, 4-5 years 4.
Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of fidelity. An adult with a sense of isolation finds it difficult to form relationships with people, and is unable to understand what other people are thinking or feeling. Stagnation During middle adulthood ages 40 to 65 yrs , we establish our careers, settle down within a relationship, begin our own families and develop a sense of being a part of the bigger picture. In each stage, the person confronts, and hopefully masters, new challenges. School Age Child: 6 to 12 Years Industry vs. We as parents can be generative from this standpoint by actively providing our society with nurtured and well taught children who by keeping their parents preaching intact grow to be prospering adults. Support is a key issue in this stage as well.
In this stage, babies learn to trust others or develop mistrust due to the way they are cared for Berger, 2012. The exact purpose usually changes as they get older. If children are criticized, overly controlled, or not given the opportunity to assert themselves, they begin to feel inadequate in their ability to survive, and may then become overly dependent upon others, , and feel a sense of shame or doubt in their abilities. If an individual does indeed successfully reconcile these forces favoring the first mentioned attribute in the crisis , he or she emerges from the stage with the corresponding virtue. He said that at this stage we usually become involved.
If mistrust wins over trust during this stage then the child will lack self-confidence. Caution must be taken at this age while children may explore things that are dangerous to their health and safety. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. The outcome of one stage is not permanent and can be modified by later experiences. Achieve mature, civic and social responsibility.
This creates a sense of shame and doubt in the mind of the child to try to experiment new things and challenges in life. This is a major stage of development where the child has to learn the he will occupy as an adult. According to Erikson, the most important factor in the personality development of an individual is the ego identity. Without this stage of development the child would fail to trust and live in fear. Erikson's 8 Stages of Man: 1.
As they gain increased muscular coordination and mobility, toddlers become capable of satisfying some of their own needs. For example, if they start to draw a picture they will keep drawing until they finish it. They will be more withdrawn, appear to lack confidence and not venture too far into areas they have not been before. Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of love. Erikson's first psychosocial crisis occurs during the first year or so of life like Freud's oral stage of psychosexual development. As the child gains control over eliminative functions and , they begin to explore their surroundings. At this age children develop their first interests.
Critical Evaluation By extending the notion of personality development across the lifespan, Erikson outlines a more realistic perspective of personality development McAdams, 2001. If given this opportunity, children develop a sense of initiative, and feel secure in their ability to lead others and make decisions. You may see that they make up their games. Unlike Freud's theory of psychosexual stages, Erikson's theory described the impact of social experience across the whole lifespan. The adolescent is newly concerned with how they appear to others.