Manipulation of patient-provider interaction: discussing illness representations or action plans concerning adherence. Non-adherence to treatment for these diseases has severe human, economic and social costs. Health psychologists try to help people to lead a healthy life by developing and running programmes which can help people to make changes in their lives such as stopping smoking, reducing the amount of alcohol they consume, eating more healthily, and exercising regularly. Doctor-centered consultations are generally directive, with the patient answering questions and playing less of a role in decision-making. Secondly, this paper examines only theories constructed by researchers and does not explore the health theories held by those receiving treatment.
Concerns and Limitations Health psychology is a broad field, and different theories within the discipline have various benefits and limitations. Its use may be more appropriate in areas where rapid behaviour change is not necessary. Health psychologists can work with people on a one-to-one basis, in groups, as a family, or at a larger population level. Health psychologists employ diverse research methods. Sustained benefit from a long-term antiretroviral adherence intervention : results of a large randomized clinical trial. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.
This is a good thing, because when Rick is stressed, he tenses up and the pain becomes worse. Stress prevention in bus drivers: Evaluation of 13 natural experiments. Doctor Author Index Subject Index About the Editors Editor-in-Chief Thomas J. These influences include, for example, past behaviour, habits, or lack of acceptance of a diagnosis. In the face of various alternatives, these theories propose, individuals will choose the action that will lead most likely to positive outcomes. The idea of character has been advocated by many cultural systems. The Handbook of Clinical Health Psychology series also includes 2002 and 2004.
This is a particular problem within the field of adherence to long-term medications, where the consequences of non-adherence may be severe. Handbook of Occupational Health Psychology 2nd ed. The role of personality factors in road crashes. Health psychologists study a broad range of variables including , , habits, the relation of to health, use, social support, living conditions, emotional state, social class, and more. They have also studied the association between illness and individual characteristics.
In contrast, it is only in the course of empirical research that content-free models, such as social cognitive theory and the theory of planned behavior, obtain the specific information required for understanding. She is also having nightmares about failing out of school, feels ineffective, and pessimistic about her future. With this backdrop grounding the elements that go into the concept of mental illness, we can now describe the five prominent frames that have been used to explain such phenomena in modern times. His current research interests include the biobehavioral aspects of cancer and chronic illness, chronic stress and illness, and psychoneuroimmunology. The two reviews identified that examined this theory had inconclusive results.
Promoting adherence: Effects of theory-based asthma education. It is also a major contributor to the prevention-focused field of and the treatment-oriented field of. Western thought can clearly locate the origin of ideas about moral character in the Greek philosophers. If you are struggling to make healthy changes in your life, dealing with this onset of illness, or facing some other type of health problem, seeing a health psychologist is one way to help start you off on the right foot. Even Janice might be conceived as having experienced real or imagined , which caused her to dissociate and misattribute inner experiences to external causes.
Their research often focuses on prevention and intervention programs designed to promote healthier lifestyles e. Protection motivation and self-efficacy: A revised theory of fear appeals and attitude change. For example, they may help people to lose weight or stop smoking. Note that the first two are examples of individuals I have seen in my work as a professional psychologist. Here the focus is on the macro structures of power and resources, the social construction of what constitutes illness and which individuals are socially sanctioned to declare who is mentally ill, labeling and the manner in which mental illnesses are distributed and treated in different cultures.
Additional searches were performed in the University of Cape Town library, Google and Google Scholar. If knowledge expectations and training become too diffuse, then expertise will inevitably suffer. Journal of Health Psychology, 7, 317—28. Relationship of physical health status and health practices. Action — The behaviors are publicly modified to provoke change.
Death of a partner: Perspectives of heterosexual and gay men. Thus, to optimize overall health, it is necessary to address the health and wellness of mind, body, and spirit, rather than to focus solely on the physical components of health. Use of Psychology in Understanding Illnesses Diagnosing, understanding and managing headaches have been helped a lot with the use of psychology. For example, adherence to long-term medication will necessarily be different to a behaviour change required to take up exercise. The causal mechanisms that underlie migraines have been described to be complex and not well understood—with neurotransmitter serotonin imbalance and resulting blood flow changes in the brain appearing to be related somehow. Does the biosphere include the cultural or are they separate? Love medicine for the dying and their caregivers: The body of evidence.