The movement that began in 1857 as a sepoy mutiny took the shape of a nationwide struggle for Independence from the British Raj. Most of them believed that the British people had harmed, were harming and would continue to harm Indians. Instead they aimed at winning freedom through a gradual process. A young group realized the futility of the ideology and techniques of the moderates. Gandhi promised to extend his support to the British in the war in return of the freedom, while Subhash Chandra Bose advocated taking advantage of the situation to expel the British Raj by any means necessary. This August Declaration led to the end of the Home Rule Movement.
During the 1905 session, the difference between the two wings of the Congress became quite apparent. Most lawyers gave their time freely, at the cost of their own legal practice, to the defense of scores of helpless victims of Martial Law implemented by the British, who had been condemned to the gallows or sentenced to long terms of imprisonment. Salt thus became a symbol for the injustice and oppression of the. Some sanctions were necessary to back up the national demand and this was supplied by the extremist. The contribution of the lawyers and jurists in this struggle for liberty, equality, justice and truth however remains unparalleled. Archived from on 15 January 2002.
Chengis Khan, the Mongolian, invaded and looted India many times. Besant as the Congress President in the Calcutta session of 1917 was a great victory of the movement. To influence the British government and to enlighten the British public and its political leaders, the Early Nationalists sent deputations of leading Indian leaders to England. Lord Mountbatten, the Viceroy of India, presented a plan for the division of India into India and Pakistan, and the Indian leaders had no choice but to accept the division, as the Muslim League was adamant. Meanwhile, in 1909, the British Government announced certain reforms in the structure of Government in India, known as Morley-Minto Reforms. India after Gandhi:The History of the World's largest Democracy. Aurobindo Ghosh and 37 other revolutionaries were suspected to have been engaged in illegal activities and sedition and were arrested.
Thus congress, an elitist institution was now open to masses by Gandhi. It was to prevent the national movement from failing into the hand of the extremist those Morley-Minto reforms were hastened. They strongly opposed the British attempt to transform India into a supplier of raw materials, a market for British manufacturers and a field of investment for foreign capital. Other moderate leaders included Rash Behari Ghosh, R C Dutt, M G Ranade, Pherozeshah Mehta, P R Naidu, Madan Mohan Malaviya, Ananda Charlu, S Subramania Iyer and William Wedderburn. Dadabhai Naoroji 1894 10th Chennai 1895 11th Surendranath Banerjee 1896 12th Kolkata Rahmatullah Sayani 1897 13th M. They were called extremist or militant nationalists.
Department of State By the 2014 Lok Sabha polling, however, the party had lost much of its popular support, mainly because of several years of poor economic conditions in the country and growing discontent over a series of corruption scandals involving government officials. The party again surprised pundits in the 2009 parliamentary elections by increasing its number of seats in the Lok Sabha from 153 to 206, its best showing since 1991. History The pre-independence period The Indian National Congress first in December 1885, though the idea of an Indian nationalist movement opposed to British rule dated from the 1850s. From 12 March to 6 April , 1930 Gandhi ji along with his 78 followers marched from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi and broke the salt law by making salt on 6 th April 1930. Soon a nation-wide opposition was oraganised against some new laws which were enacted to curb the freedom of the people by increasing the power of the police. This included the Hindi Patriot! They were denied, the party outlawed, and its members jailed.
This was followed by Gandhiji launching his famous Salt Satyagraha and the Dandi march in Gujarat. Presided over by Dadabhai Naroji. Here you read all the moderates and extremists leaders names. The first session of the Early Nationalists of India in 1885 Focusing on demands for reform, the Early Nationalists adopted a constitutional and peaceful approach to achieve their objectives. But the politically progressive Extremists proved to be social reactionaries. Tilak and his friends saw the right kind of education as being a crucial element in the task of national regeneration, and in this respect appeared to be continuing in the tradition of Jyotirao Phule 1827-1890 and Gopalrao Deshmukh 1823-1892 who was more known by his pen-name 'Lokahitwadi'.
Describing the difficulties in the way of organizing of active political struggle, Gopal Krishna Gokhale pointed to the endless divisions and subdivisions in the country, the bulk of the population ignorant and clinging with a tenacity to the old modes of thought and sentiment, which are averse to all changes and do not understand change. Both Tilak and Besant toured all over the country and carried out the message of the self-government among the masses. And while the British power gained its heights during the middle of the 19th century, the resentment of the local rulers, the farmers the intellectuals, common man as also of the soldiers who became unemployed due to the liquidation of the armies of various states became widespread. They thought it was only the bureaucracy which stood between the people and their rights. Encyclopedia of Political Parties — India — Pakistan — Bangladesh — National — Regional — Local. Fifthly, the partition of Bengal in 1905 also contributed to the growth of extremism. Furthermore, a few government officials attended the first session of the Early Nationalists and took part in its deliberations.
These victories of the countries of East against the West interpreted in India as an indication of the rise of the East against the West, and demolished the myth that West was invincible. Most of the moderate leaders were inspired by the ideas of western philosophers like Mill, Burke, Spencer, and Bentham. Extremists believed in militant methods including swadeshi and boycott. Raj: The Making and unmaking of British India. Alternative Titles: All-India Congress Party, Congress I Party, Congress Party, Indian National Congress-Indira Indian National Congress, byname Congress Party, broadly based of.