One study surveyed the results of the 'Strange Situation' in many countries. American children were securely attached. The different types of attachment were investigated by placing 12-18 month-old infants in an increasingly stressful environment or ' Strange Situation' Ainsworth et al. Harlow's Monkeys - suggest that contact is more important than food. After 2 weeks he found babies adjusted well and formed secure attachments. · A stranger then entered the lab and the mother left.
This supports cross cultural similarities as it has found that secure attachment is the main type of attachment globally. There was no open questions for participants to elaborate further, leading to a lack in validity. Could be due to them rarely being separated from their mothers, thus making them appear insecurely attached. General orientation towards each other. Emotional privation — lack of attachment. Separation protest measures how much a child is upset when they are left by their primary caregiver s.
Over 350,000 specific notes are at your disposal. This infant is in conflict as to whether he or she should seek or resist closeness. The strange situation involved a series of stages: · Mother and their infants entered the lab. I have not included topic organised past paper questions for paper 3 because the topics for this paper were tested through 24 markers in the old spec, which we no longer do. Usually slept with their own mother at night. New born babies —used to be kept separate for a week —research showed it was important for mothers and babies to bond Hospitalisation of children —traditionally not given much contact with parents —3 stages of distress protest, despair, detachment. Conclusion: Anti social behaviour in first group caused by maternal deprivation.
Therefore the mothers were the primary attachment figures. These findings suggest that the American criteria used in the ' Strange Situation' are not appropriate for other cultures: It would be wrong to suggest that the cultures with high levels of insecure attachments were raising children wrongly. This is supported by evidence that they tend to become popular and confident social leaders Stroufe, 1983. This is known as sociability and is integral to the phases in the development of attachment Schaffer, 1996. Conclusion: Children exposed to privation more likely to make a fuller recovery if adopted into a caring environment at early age.
Procedure: 100 Romanian orphans were assessed at 4, 6 and 11. There are two main measures of attachment: Separation protest and stranger anxiety. Conclusion: Shows children can recover from situations if given sufficient aftercare. Stranger could give limited comfort. German infants tend to be classified as insecure rather than securely attached. They weren't often liked by others and bullied more. Thinking about taking A level psychology in sixth form or college? Some people may argue that the Strange Situation lack reliability of observations made by different people are not the same.
After many months he still remained angry towards his mother. · The stranger tried to comfort the infant. Behaviours followed by rewarding consequences bring us pleasure e. German infants appear to be particularly insecure-avoidant in their attachments, although their parents were attentive to their children and sensitive to their needs. Almost all studies of attachment use the Strange Situation technique. Application: The results can help us understand some adult behavioural and relationship difficulties.
For example, they will start screaming, try to get away from the stranger or appear tense. Mammalian mothers show more emotional attachment to young than birds do. It is also specific to Western society, as other cultures were not studied. Early affects can be overcome but good experiences later in life. · The stranger returned and tried to interact with the child. Therefore this refutes Bowlby's continuity hypothesis. Instead we are measuring one relationship rather than something lodged in the individual.
This could have been due to children having problems so are unwanted. · A stranger then entered the lab and the mother left. The 'strange situation' Ainsworth 1960s The strange situation involved observing mothers and their children in a laboratory via one-way mirror. Aim: To see whether attachments are effected by institutionalisation. Infants were looking after and fed by different women. Children who showed insecure avoidant attachment did not pay much attention to the mother when playing, not too distressed when she left the lab, easily comforted by the… Key Concepts: Attachment is sometimes known as bonding.